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掲載紙: 情報管理
掲載日: 2003年2月
抄録(和文): 米国の特許法解釈は1990年代後半から従来と異なる展開を見せている。連邦最高裁判所が、これまで特許法をめぐる司法解釈を連邦巡回控訴裁判所に委ねていた方針を改め、連邦最高裁自らがそれを裁くことを鮮明に打ち出したからだ。1982年の創設以来、連邦巡回控訴裁判所は、米国のプロパテント政策推進の牽引役をつとめてきた。その過程で大きな影響力と権威を獲得してきた。しかし、特許法のもつ社会・経済への影響が大きくなり、連邦最高裁が法解釈のさじ加減を行うことを決断したのである。今後は、連邦巡回控訴裁判所は、特許専門の中間裁判所としてより専門的な役割に収斂してゆくことになろう。
抄録(英文): In late 1990s, the interpretation of patent laws features a somewhat different aspect. In the earlier time, the Supreme Court assigned the role of a final decision maker on patent laws to the Federal Circuit almost exclusively. However, in its recent decisions, the court has sent the clear message that the court will review patent cases positively whenever necessary. Since its establishment in 1982, the Federal Circuit has played an important role as a driving force of the policy in favor of patentees. Consequently, the Federal Circuit has attained position as a de fact IP Supreme Court. However, from now on, the Federal Circuit will have to feel more involvement in and review of its decisions by the Supreme Court. Eventually, the Federal Court will be forced to play the role of an intermediate appeal court with an expertise in patent laws.


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